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Category: algorithms Component type: function


template <class ForwardIterator, class T>
ForwardIterator remove(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                       const T& value);


Remove removes from the range [first, last) all elements that are equal to value. That is, remove returns an iterator new_last such that the range [first, new_last) contains no elements equal to value. [1] The iterators in the range [new_last, last) are all still dereferenceable, but the elements that they point to are unspecified. Remove is stable, meaning that the relative order of elements that are not equal to value is unchanged.


Defined in the standard header algorithm, and in the nonstandard backward-compatibility header algo.h.

Requirements on types

  • ForwardIterator is a model of ForwardIterator.
  • ForwardIterator is mutable.
  • T is a model of EqualityComparable.
  • Objects of type T can be compared for equality with objects of ForwardIterator's value type.


  • [first, last) is a valid range.


Linear. Remove performs exactly last - first comparisons for equality.


Vector<int> V;

copy(V.begin(), V.end(), ostream_iterator<int>(cout, " "));
    // The output is "3 1 4 1 5 9".

vector<int>::iterator new_end = remove(V.begin(), V.end(), 1);
copy(V.begin(), new_end, ostream_iterator<int>(cout, " "));
    // The output is "3 4 5 9".


[1] The meaning of "removal" is somewhat subtle. Remove does not destroy any iterators, and does not change the distance between first and last. (There's no way that it could do anything of the sort.) So, for example, if V is a Vector, remove(V.begin(), V.end(), 0) does not change V.size(): V will contain just as many elements as it did before. Remove returns an iterator that points to the end of the resulting range after elements have been removed from it; it follows that the elements after that iterator are of no interest, and may be discarded. If you are removing elements from a Sequence, you may simply erase them. That is, a reasonable way of removing elements from a Sequence is S.erase(remove(S.begin(), S.end(), x), S.end()).

See also

remove_if, remove_copy, remove_copy_if, unique, unique_copy.

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