Category: algorithms Component type: function

Prototype

`Adjacent_difference` is an overloaded name; there are actually two `adjacent_difference` functions.

```template <class InputIterator, class OutputIterator>
OutputIterator result);

template <class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class BinaryFunction>
OutputIterator result,
BinaryFunction binary_op);
```

Description

`Adjacent_difference` calculates the differences of adjacent elements in the range `[first, last)`. This is, `*first` is assigned to `*result` [1], and, for each iterator `i` in the range `[first + 1, last)`, the difference of `*i` and `*(i - 1)` is assigned to `*(result + (i - first))`. [2]

The first version of `adjacent_difference` uses `operator-` to calculate differences, and the second version uses a user-supplied BinaryFunction. In the first version, for each iterator `i` in the range `[first + 1, last)`, `*i - *(i - 1)` is assigned to `*(result + (i - first))`. In the second version, the value that is assigned to `*(result + 1)` is instead `binary_op(*i, *(i - 1))`.

Definition

Defined in the standard header numeric, and in the nonstandard backward-compatibility header algo.h.

Requirements on types

For the first version:

• `ForwardIterator` is a model of ForwardIterator.
• `OutputIterator` is a model of OutputIterator.
• If `x` and `y` are objects of `ForwardIterator`'s value type, then `x - y` is defined.
• `InputIterator`s value type is convertible to a type in `OutputIterator`'s set of value types.
• The return type of `x - y` is convertible to a type in `OutputIterator`'s set of value types.

For the second version:

• `ForwardIterator` is a model of ForwardIterator.
• `OutputIterator` is a model of OutputIterator.
• `BinaryFunction` is a model of BinaryFunction.
• `InputIterator`'s value type is convertible to a `BinaryFunction`'s first argument type and second argument type.
• `InputIterator`s value type is convertible to a type in `OutputIterator`'s set of value types.
• `BinaryFunction`'s result type is convertible to a type in `OutputIterator`'s set of value types.

Preconditions

• `[first, last)` is a valid range.
• `[result, result + (last - first))` is a valid range.

Complexity

Linear. Zero applications of the binary operation if `[first, last)` is an empty range, otherwise exactly `(last - first) - 1` applications.

Example

```int main()
{
int A[] = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100};
const int N = sizeof(A) / sizeof(int);
int B[N];

cout << "A[]:         ";
copy(A, A + N, ostream_iterator<int>(cout, " "));
cout << endl;

cout << "Differences: ";
copy(B, B + N, ostream_iterator<int>(cout, " "));
cout << endl;

cout << "Reconstruct: ";
partial_sum(B, B + N, ostream_iterator<int>(cout, " "));
cout << endl;
}
```

Notes

[1] The reason it is useful to store the value of the first element, as well as simply storing the differences, is that this provides enough information to reconstruct the input range. In particular, if addition and subtraction have the usual arithmetic definitions, then `adjacent_difference` and `partial_sum` are inverses of each other.

[2] Note that `result` is permitted to be the same iterator as `first`. This is useful for computing differences "in place".

`partial_sum`, `accumulate`, `inner_product`, `count`